Dose

Radiation Dose

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LET, RBE and OER (Oh My!). Radiologic Technologists Guide to 3 Radiation Biology Terms.

LET (Linear Energy Transfer), RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) and OER (Oxygen Enhancement Ratio) are important terms in radiation biology and relate to the relative damage that will occur with radiation under different circumstances. As LET increases there are more energetic electrons deposited closely together and thus damage to DNA is more likely. Therefore, even with …

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acute vs chronic

Acute vs Chronic, tissue sensitivities to radiation and [4 cell damage pathways] for Radiologic Technologists

Radiation damage can be either acute or chronic depending on the conditions. Acute radiation effects are due to short exposures to radiation at a relatively high dose rates and the impact is observed within days or weeks (examples include acute radiation syndromes). Whereas chronic radiation effects are typically associated with lower doses and the effects …

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Radiation Carcinogenesis [Radiation Biology, Somatic effects] for Radiologic Technologists

Radiation Carcinogenesis In this post we will describe the stochastic effect of radiation carcinogenesis (a fancy way of saying a higher risk of cancer induction after being exposed to ionizing radiation). The mechanism for carcinogenesis is primarily x-rays coming in, generating energetic electrons which then either directly or indirectly cause DNA damage. The data which …

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Fertility, Hereditary, Gestational Radiation Risks [w/Tables] for Radiologic Technologists

Radiation risks to germline cells (sperm and ova) include reduced fertility, and hereditary risks of increased mutation rate. These effects are dependent on the radiation dose: (males) [0.15-0.5 Gy] reduced sperm count, [0.5-6 Gy] temporary sterility, [greater 6 Gy] permanent sterility, and (females) [2-12 Gy depending on age] causes permanent sterility. Hereditary risks of increased …

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Acute Radiation Syndromes [ Hematopoietic, GI, CNS ] for Radiologic Technologists

The acute radiation syndromes are cause by a sudden large dose of radiation to the body and depending upon the dose level one will experience either: Cerebral Vascular (a.k.a. CNS) Syndrome, Gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, or hematopoietic (bone marrow) syndrome. This listed order is the order of severity and of the higher dose levels lead to …

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5 reasons why Gonad Shielding will soon be extinct, and motivations for why it was introduced.

The motivation for gonad shielding is to reduce the hereditary specific risks of radiation, and it is still common practice at many institutions. The reasons that shielding will soon be phased out include: hereditary risk in humans has not been demonstrated even at high doses, the radiation doses have reduced greatly from the 1950s (orders …

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Radiation Biology Illustrated Introduction [ionization DNA breaks, LD50, stochastic vs deterministic] for Radiologic Technologists

The body is composed of individual cells wherein the genetic information is stored in DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid). This DNA can be damaged by ionizing radiation, i.e. radiation which has sufficient energy to remove electrons from atoms. The DNA damage can be either direct (i.e. the electron hits the DNA directly) or indirect (i.e. the …

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X-ray/CT radiation doses [7 anatomies] compared to background radiation for Radiologic Technologists/Radiographers.

The radiation dose for x-ray radiography and CT is compared with the background radiation dose levels (average in United States of 3mSv). The different exams Abdomen, Bone, Head and Neck, Chest, Cardiac, and Mammography are presented. For reference the sources of background radiation of cosmic radiation and Radon are presented. Background Radiation Overview To provide …

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radiationDoseUnits

What Radiologic Technologists must know about Radiation Dose Units (mGy, mSv).

Introduction As a radiologic technologist one of your primary responsibilities is to get X-rays images with satisfactory image quality at a radiation dose that is As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). With this in mind, you must have a good understanding of the basis concepts in radiation dose measurements and the units for measuring radiation …

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