X-Ray

radTech Newbies 400

X-ray physics intro for starting x-ray school, a step by step guide for new radiologic technologists (radiographers).

If you are a student in training or totally new to x-ray physics are you feeling: overwhelmed or confused with the all the terminology and physics concepts pressured or embarrassed that you don’t know the answers to questions from senior technologists during your clinicals unsure of radiation effects and nervous about mass media coverage you …

X-ray physics intro for starting x-ray school, a step by step guide for new radiologic technologists (radiographers). Read More »

SNR CNR 400

X-ray Contrast to Noise (CNR) Illustrated examples of image noise (SNR, Quantum Mottle) for Radiologic Technologists

The Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) in a medical image is a measure of the contrast between the tissue of interest and the background (i.e. the neighboring tissue). The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is a measure of the image signal in a given region to the background. The ability to visualize objects in a …

X-ray Contrast to Noise (CNR) Illustrated examples of image noise (SNR, Quantum Mottle) for Radiologic Technologists Read More »

X-ray attenuation of tissues [thickness, atomic number] for Radiologic Technologists

In x-ray imaging (radiography and CT) the contrast between the tissues in the image is generated by the difference between the x-ray attenuation (influenced by density and atomic number). In this post we demonstrate the material dependence for x-ray attenuation. For all radiographers, radiologic technologists and students understanding the basic principles of x-ray interactions, which …

X-ray attenuation of tissues [thickness, atomic number] for Radiologic Technologists Read More »

magnification 400

Magnification and Blurring Effects for Radiographers and Radiologic Technologists (with Focal Spot Blur Formula)

Magnification occurs in x-ray imaging because the x-rays are divergent or spread out from the x-ray source. Therefore, the object will appear larger on the detector than the true object size. Magnification in radiography is defined as (Image Size/Object Size) and is equal to the (SID/SOD) which is the source to image distance divided by …

Magnification and Blurring Effects for Radiographers and Radiologic Technologists (with Focal Spot Blur Formula) Read More »

beamQuality 400

Beam Quality, Beam Quantity (mA, kVp, HVL) for Radiologic Technologist

Beam Quality describes the shape of the energy spectrum (i.e. the energy distribution of the x-rays) and beam quantity describes the total intensity of the spectrum (i.e. the area under the x-ray spectrum curve). In this post we describe the factors affecting beam quality including: kVp, target material, and pre-patient collimation. We also discuss the …

Beam Quality, Beam Quantity (mA, kVp, HVL) for Radiologic Technologist Read More »

gonadShielding 400

5 reasons why Gonad Shielding will soon be extinct, and motivations for why it was introduced.

The motivation for gonad shielding is to reduce the hereditary specific risks of radiation, and it is still common practice at many institutions. The reasons that shielding will soon be phased out include: hereditary risk in humans has not been demonstrated even at high doses, the radiation doses have reduced greatly from the 1950s (orders …

5 reasons why Gonad Shielding will soon be extinct, and motivations for why it was introduced. Read More »

X rayInteractions 400

X-Ray Interactions, Illustrated Summary (Photoelectric, Compton, Coherent) for Radiologic Technologists and Radiographers

The x-ray interactions are Photoelectric, Compton and Coherent. Photoelectric is mainly responsible for image contrast, Compton contributes to artifacts in the images, and Coherent scattering has little influence in most diagnostic (x-ray/CT) procedures. Overview of the Physics Behind X-Ray Interactions When x-rays interact with the human body during an x-ray exposure, they form an image …

X-Ray Interactions, Illustrated Summary (Photoelectric, Compton, Coherent) for Radiologic Technologists and Radiographers Read More »

X rayWaveProperites 400

X-Ray Properties (Energy, Wavelength, Inverse Square Law) For Radiologic Technologists

Basics of x-ray properties for radiographers and radiologic technologists include: wave and particle models for x-rays, relationships between Energy, wavelength and frequency, and 1/R^2 effect. Radiation Radiation is energy emitted/transmitted as a wave or particle that travels through a medium (such as the air or a patient). A brief comparison of the different types of …

X-Ray Properties (Energy, Wavelength, Inverse Square Law) For Radiologic Technologists Read More »

scatter 400

X-ray scatter (collimation, kVp, air gap, thickness, anti-scatter grids) factors every technologist should know.

X-ray scatter due to Compton Scatter generates background haze in x-ray images and there is a desire to reduce the scatter impact on image quality. X-ray scatter depends on several physical factors including: body habitus (increases with increased habitus), kVp, collimation (increases with increased kVp), air gap (decreases with increased air gap), and anti-scatter grids …

X-ray scatter (collimation, kVp, air gap, thickness, anti-scatter grids) factors every technologist should know. Read More »

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